This describes the two types of crying as ways to imply details about the self as known privately or one's public identity. Or, as Arthur Schopenhauer suggested, sorrowful crying is a method of self-pity or self-regard, a way one comforts oneself. Until adolescence, however, no difference between the sexes was found. The pain of the beloved is the pain of the lover. She recommends the "crying-in-arms" approach as a way to comfort these infants. Aversive : unpleasant positive punishment.