Obodas managed to defeat Jannaeus in the Battle of Gadara around 93 BC, when he ambushed him and his forces in a steep valley where Jannaeus "was lucky to escape alive". Roman forces seem to have come from Syria and also from Egypt. The earliest evidence of Nabataean kingship comes from a Nabataean inscription in the Hauran region, probably Bosra,  which mentions a Nabataean king whose name was lost, dated by Stracky to the early third century BC. The city of Palmyra , for a time the capital of the breakaway Palmyrene Empire , grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra. The relevant part of the Lithika section of the papyrus describes an Arabian cavalry of a certain Nabataean king,  providing an early 3rd century BC reference to a Nabataean monarch. Similarities between late Nabataean Arabic dialect and the ones found in Mesopotamia during the Neo-Assyrian period, as well as a group with the name of "Nabatu" being listed by the Assyrians as one of several rebellious Arab tribes in the region, suggests a connection between the two.